Support your answers with examples from the scenario. (b) The book contains just one illustration: this diagram that shows how species evolve over time through natural selection. Later research, based on a more conclusive study of a broader population sample reached different conclusions, including a 2018 groundbreaking study (the largest of its kind do date) co-conducted by the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Harvard Medical School in Boston that looked at the possible links of DNA and homosexual behavior. Carriers are thought to be immune from malaria (an often deadly disease that is widespread in tropical climates) because changes in their blood chemistry and immune functioning prevent the malaria parasite from having its effects (Gong, Parikh, Rosenthal, & Greenhouse, 2013). Since the father has a smooth chin—therefore homozygous for the recessive allele (bb)—we can expect the offspring to have a 50% chance of having a cleft chin and a 50% chance of having a smooth chin (Figure 8). While we may admire the athletic skills of a great basketball player, we think of his height as simply a gift, a payoff in the “genetic lottery.” For the same reason, no one blames a short person for his height or someone’s congenital disability on poor decisions: To state the obvious, it’s “not their fault.” But we do praise the concert violinist (and perhaps her parents and teachers as well) for her dedication, just as we condemn cheaters, slackers, and bullies for their bad behavior.The problem is, most human characteristics aren’t usually as clear-cut as height or instrument-mastery, affirming our nature–nurture expectations strongly one way or the other. And while our bodies have many of the same parts—brains and hormones and cells with genetic codes—these are expressed in a wide variety of behaviors, thoughts, and reactions. How are genetic diseases passed through family lines? They experience symptoms only if they are severely dehydrated or are deprived of oxygen (as in mountain climbing). Then, in 1874, Sir Francis Galton used the terms nature and nurture when he wrote his theory on intelligence and personality as being determined by heredity. In parts of Africa where malaria is prevalent, having the sickle-cell mutation does provide health benefits for carriers (protection from malaria). Surrender is trusting that God, the Universe, or a higher intelligence can accomplish anything, even when you can’t foresee the outcome of a situation. Studies show, however, that while fraternal twins do more closely resemble one another than non-twin siblings, they also exhibit striking similarities when reared apart from the twin sibling, much in the same way that identical twins raised separately often grow up with many (but not all) similar personality traits. Imagine two young women—Luwi and Sena—sisters in rural Zambia, Africa. What about the biological child of a Spanish-speaking family adopted at birth into an English-speaking family? In this example, we will call the gene for cleft chin “B,” and the gene for smooth chin “b.” Cleft chin is a dominant trait, which means that having the dominant allele either from one parent (Bb) or both parents (BB) will always result in the phenotype associated with the dominant allele. In order for this process to occur, there must be competition—more technically, there must be variability in genes (and resultant traits) that allow for variation in adaptability to the environment. Nurture takes these genetic tendencies and molds them as we learn and mature. We all know. Figure 4. You would then have puppies born to aggressive parents (the Chihuahuas) but being raised by nonaggressive parents (the Beagles), and vice versa, in litters that mirror each other in puppy distribution. Studies on infant and child temperament have revealed the most compelling arguments for the nurture theory. Figure 7. Would the beagle parents raise nonaggressive Chihuahua puppies? Now consider spoken language. When studying human behavior, behavioral geneticists often employ twin and adoption studies to research questions of interest. In nonhuman animals, there are relatively straightforward experiments for tackling nature–nurture questions. The highest aim of any spiritual path is surrender. Home » New Abuse » The psychological debate of nature vs. nurture Essay. DNA is a helix-shaped molecule made up of nucleotide base pairs. The little moth did not heed the advice, thus it was burned by the flame. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/nature-vs-nurture-1420577. So, a given gene may code for the trait of hair color, and the different alleles of that gene affect which hair color an individual has. The childhood of Jose Rizal can be characterized by his desire to learn, even frequenting the church nearby his home to watch and observe people but not to be religiously inclined. In fact, even the great violinist might have some inborn qualities—perfect pitch, or long, nimble fingers—that support and reward her hard work. Involvement in this process also helps foster an interest in environmental sustainability. Eventually, the child learned to associate the object with fear, whether the noise was present or not. Trying to untangle the various ways nature-nurture influences human behavior can be messy, and often common-sense notions can get in the way of good science. The debate nature/nurture has been a. One of the Finnish education system’s major strengths is its ability to guarantee the same educational opportunities for everyone, regardless of social or economic background. If two individuals mate who are both heterozygous for the allele associated with PKU, their offspring have a 25% chance of expressing the PKU phenotype. These methods have provided us with the heritability coefficient which measures how strongly differences among individuals for a trait are related to differences among their genes. To analyze nature–nurture using twins, we compare the similarity of MZ and DZ pairs. When a sperm and egg fuse, their 23 chromosomes pair up and create a zygote with 23 pairs of chromosomes. 12. New research into epigenetics—the science of how the environment influences genetic expression—is changing the conversation. “There are many differing viewpoints on nature versus nurture, and there are those who believe that bad behavior can be excused and understood if a person doesn't know better. In humans, genetic variation begins with an egg, about 100 million sperm, and fertilization. For example, when presented with data showing that children whose mothers read to them often are likely to have better reading scores in third grade, it is tempting to conclude that reading to your kids out loud is important to success in school; this may well be true, but the study as described is inconclusive, because there are genetic as well as environmental pathways between the parenting practices of mothers and the abilities of their children. Powell, Kimberly. Evolutionary psychology focuses on how universal patterns of behavior and cognitive processes have evolved over time. Quantitative genetics uses statistical methods to study the effects that both heredity and environment have on test subjects. Fertile women ovulate roughly once per month, releasing an egg from follicles in the ovary. Using methods similar to those employed by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov with dogs, Watson conditioned the baby to make certain associations based on paired stimuli. And the basketball player might have eaten a diet while growing up that promoted his genetic tendency for being tall. Some experts assert that who we are is a result of nurture —the relationships and caring that surround us. Maybe you pictured a male when you heard 'building construction manager'? He increasingly turned … (b) Phenotype describes an individual’s observable characteristics, such as hair color, skin color, height, and build. If a population consisted of identical individuals, then any dramatic changes in the environment would affect everyone in the same way, and there would be no variation in selection. However, while studies show that identical twins are never exactly alike, they are remarkably similar in most respects. Studies on behavioral . While at Johns Hopkins University, Watson conducted a series of experiments on a nine-month-old orphaned infant named Albert. However, I do agree that nurture plays a bigger role than nature. Perhaps the most controversial topic up for debate is whether or not there's such a thing as a "gay gene." Most traits are polygenic: controlled by more than one gene. Before it all started, at that point in time, the founder Madame Teresita Fabian Pamintuan was recuperating from her breast cancer operation. There is an analogous distinction for knowledge acquisition and artificial intelligence. As parents, we prepare an environment, a home, and family where our children can grow and thrive. foster is one that has been regarded and contradicted for many years. Unlike the static conception of nature or nurture, epigenetic research demonstrates how genes and environments continuously interact to produce characteristics throughout a lifetime. In the middle of the 20th century, psychology was dominated by the doctrine of behaviorism, which held that behavior could only be explained in terms of environmental factors. In 1925, Margaret Mead journeyed to the South Pacific territory of American Samoa. Snuggle or pet your cat or dog: Petting an animal has been shown to reduce our heart rate and brings about warm feelings of love and comfort. Since the 16th century, when the terms “nature” and “nurture” first came into use, many people have spent ample time debating which is more important, but these discussions have more often led to ideological cul-de-sacs rather than pinnacles of insight. What about how much we drink or worry? You are about to hear a list of occupations. Others argue that who we are is based entirely in genetics. Sena, on the other hand, develops malaria and dies just two weeks later. This setup isn’t quite the same as the experiments with dogs (children aren’t assigned to random adoptive parents in order to suit the particular interests of a scientist) but adoption still tells us some interesting things, or at least confirms some basic expectations. While walking home from school, both sisters are bitten by mosquitos carrying the malaria parasite. Imagine that a woman with a cleft chin has a child with a man with a smooth chin. Never been more grateful to have such a wonderful team standing beside us holding our hands as we all work our way through this. The capital B represents the dominant allele, and the lowercase b represents the recessive allele. Monozygotic twins, also called “identical” twins, result from a single zygote (fertilized egg) and have the same DNA. He wanted the Filipino youth to use their capabilities, talents and skills to stand out not only for their own praise and success but also for the praise and success of their own motherland, the Philippines. author George Howe Colt claimed that "new studies show it's mostly in your genes." Scientists have known for years that traits such as eye color and hair color are determined by specific genes encoded in each human cell. This is a case where “correlation does not imply causation,” as they say. If so, you are not alone. (2020, August 28). 1. Watch this video with renowned evolutionary psychologist Davis Buss for an explanation of how a psychologist approaches evolution and how this approach fits within the field of social science. In simplest terms, some scientists believe people behave as they do according to genetic predispositions or even "animal instincts," which is known as the "nature" theory of human behavior, while others believe people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. Skinner eventually went on to prove that human behavior could be conditioned in much the same way as animals. It was first discussed in Ancient Greece when the philosopher Galen suggested that personality arose from variations in bodily fluids. What is the main idea of the poem “To the Filipino Youth” by Dr. Jose Rizal? The Nature Theory: Heredity . From this perspective, then, who we are depends on nature. She teaches at the Genealogical Institute of Pittsburgh and the Salt Lake Institute of Genealogy. Critics pointed out that the studies on which the author and like-minded theorists based their findings used insufficient data and too narrow a definition of same-sex orientation. In both fields, it is understood that genes not only code for particular traits, but also contribute to certain patterns of cognition and behavior. Figure 9. Is your personality more like one of your parents than the other? While we don't really know how much of our personality is determined by our DNA and how much by our life experience, we do know that both play a part. The nature vs. nurture psychology debate has been going on for thousands of years. According to this belief, our temperaments, interests, and talents are set before birth. Researchers have learned a great deal about the nature-nurture dynamic by working with animals. Why do two people infected by the same disease have different outcomes: one surviving and one succumbing to the ailment? In this Punnett square, N represents the normal allele, and p represents the recessive allele that is associated with PKU. Therefore, variations in cognition and behavior would make individuals more or less successful in reproducing and passing those genes to their offspring. How did Rizal develop his philosophy? Modification, adaptation, and original content. While not totally discounting that genetic tendency may exist, supporters of the nurture theory conclude that, ultimately, they don't matter. Dizygotic twins, also known as “fraternal” twins, develop from two zygotes and share 50% of their DNA. Explain whether nature or nurture had a more significant role in Jan’s and Judi’s development. Mendel’s famous work with peas, conducted at about the same time, went undiscovered for 20 years; quantitative genetics was developed in the 1920s; DNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in the 1950s; the human genome was completely sequenced at the turn of the 21st century; and we are now on the verge of being able to obtain the specific DNA sequence of anyone at a relatively low cost. Visit this DNA Learning Center website to learn more about how a mutation in DNA leads to sickle-cell anemia. The explanation is illustrated with the following scenario. But of course many of the techniques used to study animals cannot be applied to people. When children are put up for adoption, the parents who give birth to them are no longer the parents who raise them. And what might these outcomes tell you about the difference between height and language in terms of nature-nurture? The novel is a scathing indictment of the Catholic Church and Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines, and its publication cemented Rizal's position on the Spanish colonial government's list of troublemakers. Twin and adoption studies are two instances of a much broader class of methods for observing nature-nurture called quantitative genetics, the scientific discipline in which similarities among individuals are analyzed based on how biologically related they are. Today Skinner is known as the father of behavioral science. In each chromosome, sequences of DNA make up genes that control or partially control a number of visible characteristics, known as traits, such as eye color, hair color, and so on. Or… would the result be a combination of nature and nurture? Are there genetic components to psychological disorders, such as depression or schizophrenia? Twin studies compare the rates that a given behavioral trait is shared among identical and fraternal twins; adoption studies compare those rates among biologically related relatives and adopted relatives. (b) A cleft chin, shown here, is an inherited trait. Both approaches provide some insight into the relative importance of genes and environment for the expression of a given trait. I would like for you to think about the first picture that enters your mind when you hear the occupation. While a gene may increase the likelihood that you'll behave in a particular way, it does not ultimately predetermine behavior. The "nature vs. nurture" argument rages on as scientists debate how much of who we are is shaped by genetic factors and how much is a result of environmental factors. Trait of aggressiveness, as well as for criminal behavior predetermine behavior of... Individuals, is influenced by the pairing of two camps: nature or nurture, epigenetic research demonstrates how will. 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